Scriptural Summaries for Moral Government Theology on Sin, Atonement, & Open Theism | Jesse Morrell

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SIN

  1. Children do not inherit the sin or guilt of their parents (Deut. 24:16,2 Kng. 14:6, 2 Chron. 25:4, Jer. 31:29-30, Eze. 18:2-4, Eze. 18:19-20).
  1. Each moral agent is accountable for their own deeds and for their deeds only (Deut. 24:16, 2 Kng. 14:6, 2 Chron. 25:4, Eze. 18:2-4, Eze. 18:19-20, Jer. 17:10; Matt. 16:27; Rom. 2:5-6; 14:12; 2 Cor. 5:10; 11:15; 1 Pet. 1:17; Rev. 20:11-12; Rev. 22:12).
  1. Moral responsibility is limited and proportionate to moral ability (Deut. 6:5, Deut. 10:12, Deut. 30:6, Matt. 22:37, Mk. 12:30, Lk. 10:27, 1 Cor. 10:13).
  1. Moral accountability is limited and proportionate to moral knowledge (Matt. 11:21-22, Lk. 12:47-48, Lk. 23:34, Jn. 9:41, Jn. 15:22, Rom. 4:15, Rom. 5:13, Jas. 4:17, Jn. 19:11, Matt. 23:14, Mk.12:40, Lk. 20:47, Jas. 3:1, Matt. 10:15, Matt. 11:24, Mk. 6:11, Lk. 10:12, Lk. 10:14, Heb. 10:26, 2 Pet. 2:21).
  1. Infant children are born morally innocent (2 Kng. 21:16; 24:4; Jer. 13:26-27; Ps. 106:37-38; Matt. 18:3) They have not yet “done anything” morally “good or evil” (Rom. 9:11), until the age of accountability, which is the age of reason, when they know right from wrong (Deut. 1:39; Isa. 7:15-16), and choose to do wrong (Jas. 4:17). Those who don’t know right from wrong cannot be sinful (Jn. 9:41), and infants do not yet know right from wrong (Deut. 1:39; Isa. 7:15-16). Therefore, infants cannot be sinful.
  1. All men have chosen to be sinners from their “youth,” which is when they reach the age of accountability (Gen. 8:21; Jer. 22:21; 32:30).
  1. All men have been sinners by choice (Gen. 6:12, Ex. 32:7, Deut. 9:12, Deut. 32:5, Jdg. 2:19, Hos. 9:9, Ps. 14:2-3, Isa. 53:6, Ecc. 7:29, Rom. 3:23, Rom. 5:12).
  1. Each individual originates their sin out of their own heart (Ps. 7:14; 58:3; Matt. 12:35, Lk. 6:45, Acts 5:4).
  1. God is the author of our nature. He forms all of us in the womb (Gen. 4:1; Ex. 4:11; Deut. 32:18; Isa. 27:11; 43:1; 43:7; 44:2; 44:24; 49:5; 64:8; Jer. 1:5; Ps. 26:10; 95:6; 127:3; 139:13-14, 16; Ecc. 7:29; 31:15; 35:10; Mal. 2:10; Rom. 9:20; Eph. 3:9; 4:6; Col. 1:16; Jn. 1:3).
  1. Our spirits are not inherited from our parents but God is the creator of our spirits (Num. 16:22; 27:16; Zac. 12:1; Ecc. 11:5; Eze. 18:4; 1 Cor. 6:20; Heb. 12:9).
  1. Men are not born dead in sins but become morally depraved and relationally separated from God when they personally become sinful or personally choose to sin (Eze. 18:4, 20; Isa. 59:2, Lk. 15:24; Rom. 5:12; 5:14; 7:9; 7:11; 8:6; 2 Cor. 5:14; Col. 1:21; 2:13; Rev. 3:1).
  1. God forms us in His image, so even after the fall of Adam man is made in the image of God (Gen. 1:26-27; 9:6; 1 Cor. 11:7; Jas 3:9).
  1. Even after the fall of Adam, mankind continued to have the power of free choice (Gen. 4:6-7; Deut. 30:11, 19; Josh. 24:15; Isa. 1:16-20; 55:6-7; Jer. 4:14; Hos. 10:12; Jer. 18:11; 21:8; 26:13; Eze. 18:30-32; 20:7-8; Acts 2:40; 17:30; Rom. 6:17; 2 Cor. 7:1; 2 Tim. 2:21; Jas. 4:7-10; 1 Pet. 1:22; Rev. 22:17). God calls all men everywhere to repent (Acts 17:30-31), and He rightly blames them if they do not repent (Matt. 11:20; 23:37; Mk. 6:6; Lk. 7:30; 13:34; 14:17-18; 19:14; 19:27; Jn. 5:40; Rev. 2:21).

ATONEMENT

1. God has a moral government over mankind (Matt. 22:37-39; Rom. 13:10; 1 Cor. 9:21) and His moral government extends over countless hosts of heaven (Ps. 103:20-21, Jer. 33:22; Heb. 12:22).

2. Government exists for the good of its subjects (Deut. 10:13; Rom. 13:4).

3. Penalty is executed to deter others from crime and upload the law (Deut. 21:21-22; Eze. 23:46-48; Rom. 11:20-22; Cor. 10:11; 2 Cor. 10:5-6; 2 Pet. 2:6; Jude 1:7).

4. Penalty is not executed to gratify God’s personal feelings (Eze. 18:32; 33:1; Isa. 63:9; Lam. 3:32-33; 2 Pet. 3:9).

5. Forgiveness is the setting aside of the execution of the penalty (1 Chro. 21:7-15; 2 Chro. 12:5-7, 32:26; 2 Sam. 24:16; 24:25; Num. 16:46-48; Ps. 78:38; 106:23, 45; Jer. 18:8; Eze. 20:17; Micah 7:18-19; Jonah 3:9-10; 4:2; Joel 2:13-14; Acts 5:31; 13:38; 26:18; Eph 1:7; Col 1:14; Heb 9:22), the pardoning of debt (Matt. 6:12, 18:27, Lk. 7:41-42), when God turns away from His wrath (Deut. 13:17; Num. 25:4, 25:11; Josh. 7:26; Ps. 78:38; 85:3-4; Joel 2:13; Jonah 3:9; Isa. 12:1; Jer. 3:12; Dan. 9:16, 19; Hos. 11:9; 14:4; Mic. 7:18).

6. The problems of forgiveness are governmental not personal, as forgiveness from a government is a delicate matter since it can have the tendency to encourage further crimes (Dan. 6:7-16; Esther 1:16-22; Ecc. 8:11).

7. God is personally reluctant to execute judgment because of His benevolent disposition and merciful heart and He personally prefers the exercise of mercy over judgment (1 Chron. 21:15; Eze. 18:32; 33:1; Isa. 28:21; Lam. 3:33; Mic. 7:18; Jn. 3:17; 8:10-11; 2 Pet. 3:9; Jas. 2:13).

8. God was gracious, merciful, and forgiving prior to the atonement (Ps. 86:5, 103:8; 145:8; Neh. 9:17), so the atonement did not change God’s disposition by making Him gracious, merciful, or inclined to forgive (Mal. 3:6; James 1:17).

9. The atonement was made because God was already loving and favorably disposed towards mankind (Jn. 3:16; Lk. 2:14; Rom. 5:8; 1 Jn. 4:10).

10. The penalty for our sins is eternal hell (Dan. 12:2; Matt. 2:46; 2 Thes. 1:9; 2 Pet. 2:9; Jude 1:7; Rev. 21:8)

11. The atonement makes possible the remission of penalty (Matt. 26:28; Acts 5:31; 13:38; Heb. 9:22; Eph. 1:7, 4:32; Col. 1:14).

12. The suffering and life of Jesus is a substitute or ransom offered instead of the punishment or damnation of sinners (Isa. 53:5; Matt. 20:28; Mk. 10:45; 1 Tim. 2:6; 1 Pet. 3:18).

13. The atonement was made to justify the mercy of God, declaring His righteousness, so that He might be just even in the forgiveness of sins (Rom. 3:24-26).

14. Given the vicarious nature of His sacrifice, the atonement has a powerful moral influence upon the hearts of men, so much so as to be able to turn sinners into saints, and this was a primary objective of His sacrifice (Matt. 1:21; Jn. 1:29; Acts 3:26; Rom. 8:4; 2 Cor. 5:15; Gal. 1:4; Eph. 5:25-27; Col 1:21-23; Titus 2:11-12, 14; Heb. 9:26; 10:10; Tit. 2:14; 1 Pet. 2:24; 1 Jn. 1:7; 3:5; 3:8; 4:19).

15. What God desires is a change of heart and obedience, not a sacrifice (1 Sam. 15:22; Ps. 51:16-17; Prov. 21:3; Hos. 6:6; Matt. 9:13; 12:7), so that a sacrifice that does not produce a change of moral character, or is not accompanied with repentance, does not save (Ps. 50:7-23; 51:16-19; Prov. 15:8; 16:6; 21:3; 21:27; Isa. 1:10-17; 56:6-7; 66:3-4; Jer. 7:21-26; 11:14-17; 14:10-12; Hos. 6:6-7; 8:11-14; 9:1-6; 12:9-11; 14:1-3; Joel 1:9;, 13; 2:12-14; Amos 4:4-5; 5:21-27; Jonah 1:15; 2:9; 3:5-10; Mic. 6:6-8; Zeph. 1:7-13; 3:10-11; Hag. 2:14; Zech. 14:21; Mal. 1:6-14; 2:10-14; 3:3-4; Matt. 9:13; 12:7; Heb. 10:8, 10:26-31).

16. The atonement was a sacrifice offered to God, not Satan (Gen 8:20-21, Exo. 29:18, 29:25, 29:41, 30:12-13; Lev. 1:9, 1:13, 1:17, 2:2, 2:9, 2:12, 3:5, 3:16, 4:31, 6:15, 6:21, 8:21, 8:28, 17:6, 23:13, 23:18, Num. 15:3, 15:7, 15:10, 15:13, 15:14, 15:24, 18:17, 28:2, 28:6, 28:8, 28:13, 28:24, 28:27, 29:2, 29:6, 29:8, 29:13, 29:36; 1 Cor. 10:20; Heb. 9:9, 10:1; Eph. 5:2).

17. Though Jesus Christ bore our sins in that He was suffering vicariously for the sake of them and on behalf of us (Lev. 16:22; Isa. 53:11; 1 Pet. 2:24), He by no means became guilty or sinful while on the cross (Heb. 13:8). He was the spotless lamb without any blemish ( 22:20; Ex. 12:5; Lk. 23:41; Heb. 9:14; 13:8; 1 Pet. 1:19; 2:22-23; 3:18), who became the sin-offering for us (2 Cor. 5:21).

18. The nature of the atonement is not such as to render salvation automatic and unconditional, as salvation through the atonement can be neglected, men are justified only when they have faith, and the ministry of reconciliation is still occurring subsequent to His sacrifice (Jn. 3:36; Rom. 5:1; Heb. 2:3; 2 Cor. 5:20).

19. Jesus died for everyone (Isa. 53:6; Heb. 2:9; 2 Cor. 5:14-15; 1 Tim. 4:10; 1 Jn. 2:2) so that salvation is available to all (Jn. 3:14-17; 12:46; Acts 10:43; Rom. 10:11; Rev. 22:17).

20. Though Jesus died for everyone, not everyone is saved through His atonement because forgiveness through atonement is conditional and salvation can be neglected (Matt. 18:21-35; Mk. 16:16; Acts 2:38; Rom. 10:9; Heb. 2:3, 10:26-31; 2 Pet. 2:20-22).

21. Those Jesus died for can still perish or go to hell (Rom. 14:15; 1 Cor. 8:11; Heb. 10:29; 2 Pet. 2:1)

22. God still has wrath after the atonement (Lk. 21:23; Jn. 3:36; Acts 12:23; Rom. 1:18; 2:5; Col 3:6; Rev. 6:17; 14:10; 16:19), in fact God has more wrath after the atonement than before because those who sin against the atonement are under more wrath than those who sinned merely under the law (Heb. 10:26-31). God will only turn from his wrath when sinners turn from their sins (Jonah 3:10; Jer. 18:8; 26:13; Joel 2:13-14). The atonement did not satisfy or pacify His wrath, but as a substitute for the execution of His wrath, His sacrifice made it possible for God to be just even when He turns from His wrath in the forgiveness of sins (Rom. 3:25-26; 1 Jn. 2:2; 1 Jn. 4:10), so that the Bible says through Jesus we are saved from the wrath to come (1 Thes. 1:10). His wrath can Passover us as it did for the Israelites (Ex. 12:13, 23) because Jesus is our Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7).

23. Christ did in fact drink a cup of suffering (Matt. 20:22; 26:42; Jn. 18:11), He tasted death for every man (Heb. 2:9). This cup could not be the cup of God’s wrath (Ps. 11:6; Isa. 51:17; 51:22) since the cup of God’s wrath was still full after the atonement (Rev. 14:10; 15:7; 16:19; 17:1; 21:9), and because the disciples of Jesus would drink the same cup Jesus drank (Matt. 20:22-23; Mk. 10:38-39)

24. God is not obligated by justice to forgive those for whom Christ died for, so that when they are forgiven and justified it is done freely by His grace (Rom. 3:24; Tit. 3:7).

OPEN THEISM

* God speaks of the future in terms of what may or may not be: Ex. 3:18, 4:9, 13:17; Eze.12:3; Jer. 36:3; 36:7

* God changes His plans in response to changing circumstances: Ex. 32:10-14, Jer. 18:1-10; Jonah 3:10

* God’s willingness to change His plans is considered one of His glorious attributes: Jonah 4:2; Joel 2:12-13

* God tests people to see what types of decisions they will make: Gen. 22:12; Ex. 16:4; Deut. 8:2, 13:1-3; 2 Chron. 32:31

* God has had disappointments and has regretted how things turned out: Gen. 6:5-6; 1 Sam. 15:10, 15:35

* God has expected things to happen that didn’t come to pass: Isa. 5:1-5; Jer. 3:6-7, 3:19-20

* God gets frustrated and grieved when he attempts to bring individuals into alignment with his will and they resist: Eze. 22:29-31; Isa. 63:10; Eph. 4:30; cf. Heb. 3:8, 3:15, 4:7; Acts 7:51

* The prayers of men have changed the plans of God (God changes the future: Ex. 32:10- 14; Num. 11:1-2, 14:12-20, 16:16:20-35; Deut. 9:13-14, 9:18-20, 9:25; 2 Sam. 24:17-25; 1 Kin. 21:27-29; 2 Kin. 20:6; 2 Chron. 12:5-8; Jer. 26:19; Isa. 38:5

* God is said to have repented (changed His mind) multiple times in the Bible: Gen. 6:6-7; Ex. 32:12-14; Num. 23:19; Deut. 32:36; Judges 2:18; 1 Sam. 15:11, 15:29, 15:35; 2Sam. 24:16; Ps. 90:13, 106:45, 110:4, 135:14; Jer. 4:28, 15:6, 18:8, 18:10, 20:16, 26:3, 26:13, 26:19, 42:10, Eze. 24:14, Hos. 11:8, 13:14; Joel 1:13-14; Amos 7:3, 7:6; Jonah 3:9-10, 4:2; Zach. 8:14

* Prophecies are often God foretelling what He Himself will later bring to pass. So they often have to do more with God’s omnipotence to bring about His plans then merely foreseeing the future: Gen. 3:15; 1 Kin. 8:15, 8:20, 8:24, 13:32 (with 2 Kin. 23:1-3, 15-18); 2 Kings 19:25; 2 Chron. 1:9 (1 Chron. 6:4; 10, 15); 2 Chron 36:21-22; Ezra 1:1; Isa. 5:19, 25:1-2, 37:26, 42:9 (with vs. 16); 46:10; Jer. 29:10, 32:24, 32:28, 33:14-15, Lam. 3:37; Eze. 12:25, 17:24, 33:29, 33:33; Dan. 4:33, 4:37; Acts 3:18, 27:32-35; Rev. 17:17. This type of prophecy includes the prophecies of the Messiah. So His birth, the location of His birth, the miracle of His birth, were not accidents or merely foreseen events, but were the deliberate plan of God (Gen. 3:15; Isa. 9:6; 53:6; Acts 2:23, 4:28)

* The future is partly open (undetermined, uncertain): Ex. 3:18, 4:9, 13:17; Eze. 12:3; Gen. 22:12; Ex. 16:4; Deut. 8:2, 13:1-3; Jdg. 2:20-22, Jdg. 3:4, Ex. 33:2, Ex. 34:24; 1 Sam. 2:30, 2 Chron. 12:6-7, 2 Chron. 16:9; 2 Chron. 32:31; Ps. 81:13-14; Isa. 5:1-5; Jer. 3:6-7, 3:19-20; Matt. 24:20; 26:53; Mk. 13:20.

* The future is partly settled (determined, certain): Gen. 3:15; 1 Kin. 8:15, 8:20, 8:24, 13:32 (with 2 Kin. 23:1-3, 15-18); 2 Kings 19:25; 2 Chron. 1:9 (1 Chron. 6:4; 10, 15); 2 Chron 36:21-22; Ezra 1:1; Isa. 5:19, 25:1-2, 37:26, 42:9 (with vs. 16); Jer. 29:10, 32:24, 32:28, 33:14-15, Lam. 3:37; Eze. 12:25, 17:24, 33:29, 33:33; Dan. 4:33, 4:37; Acts 3:18, 27:32-35; Rev. 17:17; Gen. 3:15; Isa. 9:6; 53:6; Acts 2:23, 4:28.

* The future can be changed: Gen. 19:17-22;  Ex. 32:10-14, Jer. 18:1-10; Ex. 32:10-14; Num.11:1-2, 14:12-20, 16:20-35; Deut. 9:13-14, 9:18-20, 9:25; 2 Sam. 24:17-25; 1 Kin. 21:27-29; 2 Kin. 20:6; 2 Chron. 12:5-8; Jer. 26:19; Isa. 38:5; Matt. 24:20; Mk. 13:20;

* Scriptures that say God has a past, present, and a future: Jn. 1:14; Rev. 1:4, 1:8, 4:8; 5:12;

* Scriptures that say God’s eternity is endless time, that is, time without beginning or end: Isa. 9:6-7; Isa. 43:10; Isa. 57:15; Job 36:26; Dan. 4:34; Hab. 1:12 Ps. 23:2; Ps. 90:2; Ps. 102:24; Ps. 102:27; Lk. 1:33; Heb 1:12; Rev 1:4; Rev. 1:8; Rev. 4:8; Rev. 5:14;

* Scriptures that say man’s eternity is endless time: Isa. 45:17; Eph. 3:21; Rev. 14:11;

* Scriptures that say eternity is endless time for Heavenly creatures: Rev. 4:8

* Eternity is time without end (endless time instead of timelessness): Isa. 9:6-7; Isa. 43:10; Isa. 57:15; Job 36:26; Dan. 4:34; Hab. 1:12 Ps. 23:2; Ps. 90:2; Ps. 102:24; Ps. 102:27; Lk. 1:33; Heb 1:12; Rev 1:4; Rev. 1:8; Rev. 4:8; Rev. 5:14; Isa. 45:17; Eph. 3:21; Rev. 14:11

FREE ATONEMENT BOOK

The Scriptural Doctrine of Atonement by Caleb Burge has been said to be the best book on the Governmental Atonement theory. Burge expounds upon very profound concepts and presents them in a very intelligent and understandable way. This book was originally published in 1822. It contains pure theological gold on one of the most important doctrines of Christianity. It will be an absolute treasure in your library.

SIGN UP FOR THIS FREE E-BOOK HERE:

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